# Price Elasticity – what it is and how to calculate it

Are you struggling to determine how changes in price impact your sales? Understanding price elasticity could be the key to unlocking your pricing strategy’s potential. In this guide, we delve into what price elasticity is and how to calculate it, empowering you to make informed decisions that drive profitability and growth.

## What is Price Elasticity?

Price elasticity is a key economic concept that measures the responsiveness of demand to changes in price. It helps businesses understand how much their sales will be affected by price changes. If a product has elastic demand, consumers will not be as willing to buy when the price increases, resulting in a decrease in revenue. On the other hand, if a product has inelastic demand, consumers will continue to buy the product even if the price increases, leading to a smaller impact on demand, and a positive impact on revenue and profit.  Overall, it’s a critical indicator that can inform strategic pricing decisions, but its practical application, especially in a B2B manufacturing context, is not without its challenges and limitations.

## Price Elasticity of Demand vs Price Elasticity of Supply

Price elasticity can be divided into two different types; price elasticity of demand and price elasticity of supply. The main difference between them is that the former reflects how demand responds to changes in price, while the latter reflects how supply responds to price changes.

### How to Calculate Price Elasticity of Demand

Price elasticity of demand (PED) measures the percentage change in quantity demanded due to a percentage change in price.

The formula for calculating PED is:

PED = (% Change in Quantity Demanded) / (% Change in Price)

Price elasticity of demand can be classified as elastic (PED > 1), unit elastic (PED = 1), or inelastic (PED < 1).

### How to calculate Price Elasticity of Supply

On the other hand, price elasticity of supply (PES) measures the percentage change in quantity supplied in response to a percentage change in price. The formula for calculating PES is:

PES = (% Change in Quantity Supplied) / (% Change in Price)

Similarly, price elasticity of supply can be classified as elastic (PES > 1), unit elastic (PES = 1), or inelastic (PES < 1).

Additionally, while elasticities greater than 1 indicate elasticity, those less than 1 indicate inelasticity. Understanding these concepts is crucial for businesses and policymakers in making pricing and production decisions.

## The Criticality of Accurate Measurement in Price Elasticity

One of the primary pitfalls in leveraging price elasticity is the complexity of measuring the true impact of price changes. Companies often mistake top-line revenue fluctuations as a direct result of their pricing strategies. However, revenue can be influenced by a myriad of factors, such as seasonal demand, promotional activities, or changes in consumer preferences, all of which can obscure the real effects of price adjustments. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of pricing, it’s essential to isolate price changes from other variables.

## Understanding the Challenges with Price Elasticity

Price elasticity offers a valuable framework, but its practical application can be fraught with difficulties. The model assumes a direct relationship between price and demand, which may not hold true in the presence of other influencing factors. For example, in B2B manufacturing, a company may be the exclusive supplier of a particular component, and the demand for this component is more likely to correlate with the demand for the end product rather than its own price.

## When to Use Price Elasticity

Price elasticity is most effective in markets where:

• There are close substitutes or competitors.
• Customers are price sensitive and have the freedom to choose between suppliers.
• The market is transparent, and prices are known and easily compared.

In these scenarios, understanding price elasticity can help a company to set prices that maximize revenue and profit while maintaining a desired market share.

## When Not to Use Price Elasticity

Conversely, price elasticity may not be the best metric to rely on when:

• The product is unique without close substitutes.
• The company holds a monopoly or significant market power.
• Long-term contracts and relationships govern purchase decisions more than short-term price movements.
• The B2B product is a small component of the end product’s price, making component price less of a deciding factor.

In these cases it can be better to track price realization, including price effect, volume effect, mix effect, currency effects etc. To describe the development between periods. While understanding that the volume change and mix change might be influenced by more drivers then price changes in isolation.

## Pitfalls to Avoid in Price Elasticity

• Overreliance on Historical Data: Relying solely on historical data without considering market trends can lead to incorrect elasticity estimates.
• Ignoring Market Segmentation: Not all customer segments respond to price changes in the same way. Ignoring segmentation can oversimplify the complex dynamics of demand.
• Neglecting Cross-Elasticity: Focusing only on the price elasticity of one product without considering how it affects the demand for related products can distort the pricing strategy.

## Alternative Approaches in B2B Manufacturing

In a B2B manufacturing environment, other methods may complement or even supersede price elasticity:

• Value-Based Pricing: Focusing on the value delivered to customers rather than cost or competition can lead to more stable and profitable pricing strategies.
• Competitive Pricing: For commoditized products, keeping a close eye on competitor pricing can be more relevant than traditional elasticity measures.
• Tiered Pricing: Differentiating pricing based on product versions, quantities, or customer segments can better match the pricing to the perceived value.

## Conclusion

While price elasticity is a fundamental concept in economics, its direct application in a B2B manufacturing context should be nuanced. It is essential to understand the specific market dynamics and the role that pricing plays within them. By integrating price elasticity with a broader set of pricing tools and approaches, B2B manufacturers can develop a more nuanced, effective pricing strategy that aligns with their unique business and market realities.